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  1. British Heart Foundation. UK Factsheet. July 2021. Available online at:  (Accessed 21.4.22)
  2. WHO. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) Available online at: (Accessed 5.5.22)
  3. Ference BA, Ginsberg HN, Graham I et al. Low-density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Evidence from genetic, epidemiologic, and clinical studies. A consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel. Eur Heart J 2017; 38: 2459–2472
  4. Public Health England. Health matters: preventing cardiovascular disease. Available online at: (Accessed 21.4.22)
  5. NHS Digital. Health Survey for England 2019 Adults’. Available online: (Accessed 21.4.22)
  6. NHS Digital. Health Survey for England.  (Accessed 21.4.22)
  7. WHO. Global Health Observatory (GHO) data. 2020. Available at:  (Accessed 21.4.22)
  8. European Society of Cardiology. 2021 ESC Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. European Heart Journal 2021; 00: 1-111.
  9. 2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. European Heart Journal 2019; 00: 1-78.